Etude - Delta du Nil: évaluation des impacts sanitaires de la réutilisation de l'eau dans l'agriculture dans le delta du Nil


The Government of Egypt’s Holding Company for Water and Wastewater (HCWW) is mandated with providing and managing sanitation facilities to Egyptian families in an effort to promote health. While the government aims to provide households with sewered sanitation, many rural families still rely on on-site septic tanks which are not regulated and may be emptied into agricultural canals or directly onto farmers’ fields.
In the Nile delta, water is a key input to agriculture, which drives growth and development, but the informal reuse of untreated domestic waste is widespread and presents a significant risk to health. The Bank is supporting the government to invest in sanitation and wastewater treatment to address these risks. In addition, the Bank has worked with HCWW to carry out research on the most cost-effective strategies for provision of sanitation in terms of the public health of downstream communities. The study, which was partly funded by the WPP, assessed the health implications of pathogenic contamination of drainage water reused in agriculture. It incorporates an innovative statistical tool, known as Quantifiable Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA), by which the relative effectiveness of different wastewater management strategies can be assessed in terms of optimizing health benefits to downstream populations. 

For more information, contact

Nansia Constantinou, or

Amanda McMahon,